Although the various options for these settings may vary between manufacturers and camera models, the basic premise remains the same.
As the name suggests, these settings are pseudo-automatic. However, unlike the Program (P) setting, which does allow a minute amount of influence from the shooter, Aperture and Shutter Priority modes let you set certain parameters that change automatically to compensate for other adjustments that you remain in control of.
For instance, if your camera is set to Aperture Priority you retain the ability to adjust the Aperture to alter the depth of field as you see fit, and in conjunction with ISO, the camera will automatically choose the corresponding shutter speed for correct exposure. Many cameras give you the option to control ISO manually or let the camera adjust it for you.
The Shutter Priority setting does what you would expect, allowing you to control the shutter speed while the camera does the heavy lifting of setting the appropriate aperture.
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